Vector graphics are mathematical ways to make graphical images and pictures on computers. They are based on vectors, which are non-straight lines, for example curved lines, polygon or other shapes. The lines go through different points on a scale, called control points. Each control point has a fixed position on x and y axes on a work sheet.
Vector graphics can be used in different ways. The earliest computer graphics were all based on vector graphics; today when you mention vector graphic in this context, most people think of two dimensional graphics. Today, the main graphics on computers are bitmaps (raster format). Vector graphics has also been used within the US military and air traffic control; laser is also based on vector graphics.